Go Back   This Blue Marble, a Global Current Events Discussion Forum > Health and Medicine > Ebola

Ebola News, information and discussions about prevention, spread, and treatment of Ebola. Also see our Ebola Wiki at ebola.thisbluemarble.com

Reply
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread Display Modes
Old 12-22-2014, 09:36 AM   #126
Exodia
Khan of the Golden Horde
 
Exodia's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: Southeast PA
Posts: 11,063
Thanks: 2,492
Thanked 4,555 Times in 2,068 Posts
Seems a bold claim to make:

Quote:
Sierra Leone: Ebola Vaccine to Be Available in March

19 DECEMBER 2014
By Patrick J. Kamara


Director of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine yesterday revealed in Freetown that a new vaccine for the deadly Ebola virus disease, which has claimed the lives of more than 2,000 Sierra Leoneans, will be available in March 2015.

Speaking at a press briefing organised by the Ministry of Information and Communications, Professor Peter Piot said they were in the country to have first-hand information about the disease, do research for developing an Ebola vaccine and getting prepared for a further outbreak.

"Since the first outbreak in 1976 in Congo, we have not been able to develop any effective cure for it. But we will make sure not to miss this opportunity to develop a vaccine that will be first implemented here in February or March 2015," said the professor who co-discovered the Ebola virus in Zaire while working at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium.
http://allafrica.com/stories/2014122...html?viewall=1
__________________
"Now, mark my words. So long as we are a young and virtuous people, this instrument will bind us together in mutual interests, mutual welfare, and mutual happiness. But when we become old and corrupt, it will bind us no longer" - Alexander Hamilton about the US Constitution.
Exodia is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 12-22-2014, 04:35 PM   #127
Sonny
Star Witness
 
Sonny's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: the safe house
Posts: 5,692
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,809
Thanked 724 Times in 472 Posts
Default The Canadian Vaccine

December 22, 2014
Federal authorities have awarded $30 million to help an Ames company push forward with its Ebola vaccine.

Newlink Genetics announced Monday that it had received the contract from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The money is to help NewLink and its much larger partner, Merck, move ahead with testing of their vaccine against Ebola, which has killed several thousand people in West Africa this year.

RELATED: Ebola crisis pushes NewLink into limelight

The money will help ramp up production of the vaccine and set up a 330-person study, NewLink said in a news release.

The vaccine was developed by Canadian government scientists but licensed to NewLink in 2010. The small company, which reportedly paid about $200,000 for the rights, recently signed a $50 million contract [plus royalties] with Merck to move it forward toward possible use in West African countries.

The vaccine's development is in a race with a second vaccine, being tested by GlaxoSmithKline. Drugs often take many years to reach market, but the Ebola vaccines have been placed on a fast track because of the crisis in Africa. Authorities hope to begin large human trials in early 2015.

http://www.desmoinesregister.com/sto...rant/20761849/
~


point to remember, In animal tests, a single shot of the "Canadian Vaccine" was able to protect monkeys even when the vaccine was administered after a lethal dose of Ebola Zaire.

Clearly In a situation where 6 or 7 people, all crammed into a very small car, shows up at an Ebola treatment center with a very sick relative who then tests positive for Ebola. A vaccine that could offer "post exposure protection" to the others would be preferred regardless of some joint pain or mild fever..

~

Last edited by Sonny; 12-23-2014 at 07:43 AM. Reason: edit to add "eh?"
Sonny is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 12-23-2014, 06:28 PM   #128
Sonny
Star Witness
 
Sonny's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: the safe house
Posts: 5,692
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,809
Thanked 724 Times in 472 Posts
Default Chart Candy




~~
Sonny is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 12-24-2014, 03:30 PM   #129
Sonny
Star Witness
 
Sonny's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: the safe house
Posts: 5,692
Blog Entries: 1
Thanks: 1,809
Thanked 724 Times in 472 Posts
African Ebola vaccine trial (2009 in Uganda) shows only modest immune response (This is an earlier, different version of NIH-GSK vaccine.)



Filed Under:
Ebola
Lisa Schnirring | Staff Writer | CIDRAP News

| Dec 23, 2014


africa_syringe.jpg

dk_photos / iStock



The first African trial of vaccines against Ebola and Marburg viruses showed a modest immune response and promising safety results, and the authors say the findings have already proved useful in developing a more potent version of the Ebola vaccine, now in its first human trials.

The DNA vaccines against the two filoviruses were developed by the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the African trial began in 2009 in Uganda, well before West Africa's current Ebola outbreak. Researchers from the NIAID's Vaccine Research Center and their Ugandan colleagues published their findings yesterday in The Lancet.

Since the Uganda trials began and in the wake of West Africa's Ebola outbreak, researchers, including a team from GSK, have developed a more potent version of the vaccine, called ChAd3, which uses a modified chimpanzee adenovirus. The first human trials of the more potent vaccine launched in September, with other trials now under way in the United Kingdom, Mali, and Uganda.

Julie Ledgerwood, DO, lead author of the study and chief of the clinical trials program at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center, said in a statement from the journal that the study is the first to show an immune response to an Ebola vaccine in an African population comparable to that shown in US volunteers a few weeks ago with the more potent vaccine.

"This is particularly encouraging because those at greatest risk of Ebola live primarily in Africa, and diminished vaccine protection in African populations has been seen for other diseases," she said.

Uganda trial findings


The vaccine for Ebola codes for proteins from the Zaire and Sudan strains. The Zaire strain is responsible for West Africa's outbreak. Immune responses against the Ebola and Marburg virus proteins have been linked with good protection in nonhuman primate trials.

Researchers from the Makerere University Walter Reed Program conducted the phase 1 human trial in Kampala, enrolling 108 healthy adults aged 18 to 50 years from November 2009 to April 2010. Participants randomly received the Ebola vaccine (30), the Marburg vaccine (30), both vaccines (30), or placebo (18). They received three 4-milligram doses at 4-week intervals.

When administered separately or together, the vaccines were safe and provoked an immune response in the form of neutralizing bodies and T-cells against the virus proteins. Four weeks after the third injection, the team found that 57% (17 of 30) of volunteers in the Ebola vaccine group showed an antibody response to the Ebola Zaire protein, and they saw an antibody response in 14 of 30 (47%) people who received both vaccines.

However, the response didn't last long, dropping off to undetectable levels after 11 months.

A safety analysis showed both vaccines were well tolerated, with similar numbers of local and systemic reactions in all three groups. The team saw only one serious adverse event, neutropenia, in a Marburg virus subject, but they didn't think it was related to the vaccine.

Ledgerwood said the findings have already been used in developing the more potent vaccine.

Results for stronger version of vaccine


Initial findings from the first human trial of the more potent vaccine, a bivalent one that includes genetic material from the Zaire and Sudan Ebola species, were published at the end of November. That small study, conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center in Bethesda, Md., assessed two different dose levels, and antibody levels were higher in the group that received the higher dose. Investigators found no adverse events, other than brief fevers in two of the higher-dose recipients.

Phase 1 studies are also under way for a Canadian-developed Ebola vaccine that uses an Ebola virus protein spliced into a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-EBOV). Though trial findings have not been published, earlier this month researchers said no serious adverse reactions had been seen, but a few days later Swiss researchers temporarily paused the study to explore mild joint pain in some of the participants. Health experts said they didn't think the issue would delay the trial.

Research studies have suggested that the Canadian vaccine would require only one dose, compared with two doses that may be needed for the NIH-GSK vaccine.

Key questions about vaccine remain


In a commentary on the Uganda trial findings that appears in the same Lancet issue, Saranya Sridhar, MBBS, DPhil, with the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, wrote that West Africa's Ebola epidemic is a sobering reminder of the devastating effects of filovirus outbreaks.

He said a crucial question, as with other vaccines, is whether they are as safe and immunogenic when used in Africa as elsewhere. The Ugandan trial sheds some light on the issue, he said, yielding results similar to those of an American trial of the same vaccines and providing a glimpse of what might be expected from ongoing trials of virus-vectored Ebola vaccines in Africa.

However, Sridhar urged cautious interpretation of the results, given the small number of people in the Ugandan trial and results from tuberculosis vaccine trials that showed lower vaccine immunogenicity in African populations. He also said the low proportion of Ugandan participants who showed an immune response to the Ebola vaccine alone or combined with the Marburg virus vaccine raises the question of whether a low response to the ChAd3would affect vaccination strategies for use in West Africa's outbreak. "Will it be necessary to give higher doses, multiple doses, or a modified vaccinia Ankara booster?" he wrote.

Sridhar said that in light of the Ebola epidemic, researchers and policymakers should ask themselves if a filovirus vaccine should have been further along in development. He added that the response shows how quickly vaccine developments can progress: "This study is the first step on the aspirational road towards the deployment of filovirus vaccines in Africa and must serve to shake the metaphorical cobwebs that can stall our advance towards this destination."

Other developments


  • The global Ebola total has grown to 19,431 cases, 7,565 of them fatal, the World Health Organization (WHO) said today in a brief update. With 9,004 cases, Sierra Leone has the highest number among the three hardest hit nations, though Liberia has the highest death toll, which is at 3,376. The case totals for Sierra Leone and Guinea are as of Dec 21, and Liberia's numbers are as of Dec 18.
  • The United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) said today that Sierra Leone is withdrawing its troops from Somalia after the African Union blocked Sierra Leone from rotating its troops over Ebola fears. Sierra Leone deployed 850 troops to Somalia in 2013 to help battle a jihadist terror group, and a rotation group of 800 was quarantined after one soldier tested positive for Ebola. In August Somalia's president, pressured by activists, asked that no new troops be deployed from Sierra Leone. Elsewhere, response teams are responding to fresh cases in several villages in Guinea's Kissidougou district, and a Rapid Isolation and Treatment of Ebola (RITE) team arrived in the Liberian city of Yekepa to investigate reports that a 12-year-old girl with Ebola crossed the border from Guinea into Liberia's Nimba county.
  • NewLink Genetics and Merck announced yesterday that the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), has awarded a $30 million contract to NewLink subsidiary BioProtection Systems to support the manufacturing and development of the VSV-EBOV Ebola vaccine. The award covers clinical development through a new 330-person phase 1b study. The vaccine was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada and has been licensed to NewLink and Merck.
  • Fear reactions can worsen the spread of disease in outbreaks, and more efforts are needed to address the psychological needs of people impacted by the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, experts from the University of Miami, Columbia University, and Uganda wrote yesterday in a commentary in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). They said the Ebola response roadmap has few recommendations to address fear-driven behavior, such as evading authorities and seeking traditional healers, and doesn't adequately address the mental health needs of communities that grapple with the virus. They wrote that Liberia and Sierra Leone each have only one practicing psychiatrist, only several dozen mental health nurses, and about 100 trained paraprofessionals who can handle mental health issues. International aid groups are starting to prioritize psychological support. Key features of a proactive response should include rapid assessment of stressors for citizens and health workers, they wrote, adding that trauma signature analysis is an evidence-based tool for gauging exposure and could be used to help target interventions.
See also:
Dec 22 Lancet report
Dec 22 Lancet press release

Nov 26 CIDRAP News story "First human trial of NIH-GSK Ebola vaccine shows promise" (read this one)

Dec 22 Lancet commentary
Dec 23 WHO Ebola situation summary
Dec 23 UNMEER update
Dec 22 NewLink Genetics press release
Dec 22 JAMA commentary

http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-persp...mmune-response

~

Last edited by Sonny; 12-24-2014 at 03:56 PM.
Sonny is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 01-27-2015, 03:54 PM   #130
Exodia
Khan of the Golden Horde
 
Exodia's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: Southeast PA
Posts: 11,063
Thanks: 2,492
Thanked 4,555 Times in 2,068 Posts
Quote:
Scientists Ask If Ebola Could Be Silently Immunizing Some People While Killing Others

Reuters
Posted: 01/27/2015 3:42 am EST Updated: 52 minutes ago


By Kate Kelland and Emma Farge

LONDON/DAKAR (Reuters) - A recent sharp drop in new Ebola infections in West Africa is prompting scientists to wonder whether the virus may be silently immunizing some people at the same time as brutally killing their neighbors.

So-called "asymptomatic" Ebola cases - in which someone is exposed to the virus, develops antibodies, but doesn't get sick or suffer symptoms - are hotly disputed among scientists, with some saying their existence is little more than a pipe dream.

Yet if, as some studies suggest, such cases do occur in epidemics of the deadly disease, they may be a key factor in ending outbreaks more swiftly by giving secret protection to those lucky enough to be able to bat the infection away.

"We wonder whether 'herd immunity' is secretly coming up - when you get a critical mass of people who are protected, because if they are asymptomatic they are then immune," Philippe Maughan, senior operations administrator for the humanitarian branch of the European Commission, told Reuters. "The virus may be bumping into people it can't infect any more."

Latest World Health Organization data show new cases of infection in West Africa's unprecedented Ebola epidemic dropping dramatically in Guinea, Sierra Leone and particularly in Liberia.

Most experts are sure the main driver is better control measures reducing direct contact with contagious patients and corpses, but there may also be other factors at work.

So-called herd immunity is a feature of many infectious diseases and can, in some cases, dampen an outbreak if enough people get asymptomatic, or "sub-clinical" cases and acquire protective antibodies. After a while, the virus - be it flu, measles, polio - can't find non-immune people to be its hosts.

But some specialists with wide experience of disease outbreaks are highly skeptical about whether this phenomenon happens in Ebola, or whether it could affect an epidemic.

"There is some suggestion there may be cases that are less severe... and there may even be some that are asymptomatic," said David Heymann, an infectious disease expert and head of global health security at Chatham House.

"But herd immunity is just the wrong term. There could be household immunity developing, but even that is only hypothesis."
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/0...n_6552520.html
__________________
"Now, mark my words. So long as we are a young and virtuous people, this instrument will bind us together in mutual interests, mutual welfare, and mutual happiness. But when we become old and corrupt, it will bind us no longer" - Alexander Hamilton about the US Constitution.
Exodia is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 01-27-2015, 07:23 PM   #131
CanadaSue
SuperModerator
 
CanadaSue's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2008
Location: In my gardens or online
Posts: 35,508
Blog Entries: 28
Thanks: 2,486
Thanked 11,046 Times in 5,057 Posts
Wouldn't it be nice if that proved to be true? The only way to be sure is to find a half dozen or so large, sample groups in badly affected areas & start drawing blood for antibody testing. Repeat every 4-5 days, (number picked at random) & see if evidence for such can be found.

However... it may PART of stopping individual outbreaks but as long as humans keep being born & the virus can live in other species, we need a long term solution - vaccine.
__________________
Searching for a dream to run after & catch!
CanadaSue is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-20-2015, 12:02 PM   #132
Exodia
Khan of the Golden Horde
 
Exodia's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Location: Southeast PA
Posts: 11,063
Thanks: 2,492
Thanked 4,555 Times in 2,068 Posts
Quote:
Rapid 15-minute Ebola test approved by World Health Organization

By Jacob Kastrenakes on February 20, 2015 10:15 am

The World Health Organization has approved the first rapid test for detecting Ebola, providing health workers with a way to quickly identify patients who have been infected with the virus, reports The Guardian. The test returns results in 15 minutes and is planned for use in West Africa, where the Ebola epidemic continues even as new infections begin to taper. That quick turnaround is a dramatic change from current testing, which reportedly requires around four to six hours in a lab, but is often held up for days because of delays while transporting samples.

The test is known as the ReEBOV Antigen rapid test and is made by Corgenix, a medical company in the US. Corgenix's test is said to be able to correctly identify 92 percent of patients with Ebola and 85 percent of patients without it.
http://www.theverge.com/2015/2/20/80...t-approved-who
__________________
"Now, mark my words. So long as we are a young and virtuous people, this instrument will bind us together in mutual interests, mutual welfare, and mutual happiness. But when we become old and corrupt, it will bind us no longer" - Alexander Hamilton about the US Constitution.
Exodia is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 07-31-2015, 11:48 AM   #133
Auburn Boy
Denizen of the Gold Fields
 
Auburn Boy's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Posts: 8,392
Thanks: 2,256
Thanked 1,082 Times in 642 Posts
A potential vaccine seems to be passing human effectiveness trials.

https://www.yahoo.com/health/experim...513143352.html

Quote:
An expert group monitoring the study’s data and safety recommended the trial be stopped on July 26 so that everyone exposed to Ebola in Guinea could get immunized.
... because it is working so well???

Quote:
Dr. Bertrand Draguez of Doctors Without Borders, which helped test the vaccine in its treatment clinics in Guinea, said the immunization should immediately be made available.
__________________
(\__/)
(='.'=) This is Bunny. Copy and paste bunny into your
(")_(") signature to help her gain world domination
Can't leave the Siwwy Wabbit behind!!
Auburn Boy is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 07-31-2015, 01:44 PM   #134
CanadaSue
SuperModerator
 
CanadaSue's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2008
Location: In my gardens or online
Posts: 35,508
Blog Entries: 28
Thanks: 2,486
Thanked 11,046 Times in 5,057 Posts
Our news organs are waxing lyrical here. Quick errand to run, then I'll hoik up some links.
__________________
Searching for a dream to run after & catch!
CanadaSue is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 07-31-2015, 02:48 PM   #135
Catbird
Chasing my tailfeathers
 
Catbird's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2011
Location: East TN
Posts: 10,802
Thanks: 5,622
Thanked 8,152 Times in 3,348 Posts
Waxing lyrical indeed. I really, really do hope that this is true and the results are valid. Thousands of lives would be saved. It would also be a huge step forward in our understanding of how to deal with deadly viruses and quickly produce effective vaccines for other epidemics.

But, the devil is always in the details. I'm not sure that this trial was large enough or long enough for all the details to emerge. The WHO's precedent setting decision to set aside the usual ethical standards for development and production made it possible for this to happen so quickly. And that could be a good thing. We'll just have to wait to see what, if any, details emerge over time.

It sounds fantastic and I hope it turns out to be exactly that. But for now, I'll stick to cautious optimism.



Ebola vaccine appears to be highly effective, could be ‘a game-changer’


Quote:
"We believe that the world is on the verge of an efficacious Ebola vaccine," Marie-Paule Kieny, WHO assistant director general for health systems and innovation, said in announcing the results of a preliminary study on the vaccine trial.

The vaccine, VSV-EBOV, was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada and is licensed to Merck. The new vaccine contains no live Ebola virus. Instead, it deploys a different virus, one that is alive and replicating, and has been modified to replace one of its genes with a sing Ebola virus gene. The result is that the body’s immune system has an Ebola-specific response and is better able to fight off an Ebola infection.

According to results published in the journal Lancet on Friday, the vaccine was found to be 100 percent effective in people treated. More than 4,000 people have been vaccinated with VSV-EBOV, and none have developed Ebola after between six and 10 days, the amount of time needed for people to develop immunity.

...The trial began in March in Ebola-affected communities in Guinea. Using a "ring" vaccination method, researchers selected people around an infected person to create a circle of protection. The method had been used in the 1960s and 1970s to help eradicate smallpox. It is designed to both protect potential contacts and help halt the spread of the virus.

...While these initial results are promising, additional research is needed to determine whether the protective effect of the vaccine will remain over a long period of time.

“There are still are some questions about its broad applicability over time," Anthony Fauci, director of NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told The Washington Post. "The study wasn’t designed to determine durability. It was designed to determine was it efficacious."

Fauci said the question is whether this vaccine will continue to provide protection against Ebola infection in, say, six months. The trial by design tests only whether it is effective in the short term.
Further studies will determine if this vaccine works over the long term.
__________________
"I think the most un-American thing you can say is, 'You can't say that.'” Garrison Keillor

"It's not inequality which is the real misfortune, it's dependence." Voltaire
Catbird is offline   Reply With Quote
The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Catbird For This Useful Post:
Auburn Boy (07-31-2015), lonfa (08-01-2015)
Old 07-31-2015, 03:03 PM   #136
CanadaSue
SuperModerator
 
CanadaSue's Avatar
 
Join Date: Nov 2008
Location: In my gardens or online
Posts: 35,508
Blog Entries: 28
Thanks: 2,486
Thanked 11,046 Times in 5,057 Posts
Catbird - I can't find an article that adds significantly to what you've posted.

I'm really hoping this one turns out to work long term as well as short term results would indicate.
__________________
Searching for a dream to run after & catch!
CanadaSue is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 07-31-2015, 03:28 PM   #137
Auburn Boy
Denizen of the Gold Fields
 
Auburn Boy's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2008
Posts: 8,392
Thanks: 2,256
Thanked 1,082 Times in 642 Posts
Quote:
Originally Posted by CanadaSue View Post
Our news organs are waxing lyrical here. Quick errand to run, then I'll hoik up some links.
Madame Tussaud. "Waxed News Organs."
__________________
(\__/)
(='.'=) This is Bunny. Copy and paste bunny into your
(")_(") signature to help her gain world domination
Can't leave the Siwwy Wabbit behind!!
Auburn Boy is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Tags
ebola, therapies, vaccines

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Forum Jump


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 07:07 AM.


Powered by vBulletin®
Copyright © Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.