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Old 05-25-2013, 07:26 PM   #1
kanuck57
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Default Protective effect of low-concentration chlorinedioxide gas against influenza A virus infection

Protective effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against influenza A virus infection
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18089729


J Gen Virol. 2008 Jan;89(Pt 1):60-7.
Protective effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against influenza A virus infection.
Ogata N, Shibata T.
Source

Research Institute, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, 3-34-14 Uchihonmachi, Suita, Osaka 564-0032, Japan. [email protected]
Abstract

Influenza virus infection is one of the major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Between humans, this virus spreads mostly via aerosols excreted from the respiratory system. Current means of prevention of influenza virus infection are not entirely satisfactory because of their limited efficacy. Safe and effective preventive measures against pandemic influenza are greatly needed. We demonstrate that infection of mice induced by aerosols of influenza A virus was prevented by chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) gas at an extremely low concentration (below the long-term permissible exposure level to humans, namely 0.1 p.p.m.). Mice in semi-closed cages were exposed to aerosols of influenza A virus (1 LD(50)) and ClO(2) gas (0.03 p.p.m.) simultaneously for 15 min. Three days after exposure, pulmonary virus titre (TCID(50)) was 10(2.6+/-1.5) in five mice treated with ClO(2), whilst it was 10(6.7+/-0.2) in five mice that had not been treated (P=0.003). Cumulative mortality after 16 days was 0/10 mice treated with ClO(2) and 7/10 mice that had not been treated (P=0.002). In in vitro experiments, ClO(2) denatured viral envelope proteins (haemagglutinin and neuraminidase) that are indispensable for infectivity of the virus, and abolished infectivity. Taken together, we conclude that ClO(2) gas is effective at preventing aerosol-induced influenza virus infection in mice by denaturing viral envelope proteins at a concentration well below the permissible exposure level to humans. ClO(2) gas could therefore be useful as a preventive means against influenza in places of human activity without necessitating evacuation.

PMID:
18089729
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

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Old 05-27-2013, 03:59 AM   #2
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we had discussion and links here:
http://planforpandemic.com/viewtopic.php?t=11915

that Ogota-company has products on sale meanwhile


-----------------------------------

there was also a recent paper about some other
oxyde with nitrogen ... I'll search the exact one and link


---------edit---------------------
wrt. nitric oxide., what I had in mind was this:
Gaseous nitric oxide reduces influenza infectivity in vitro
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...89860313001146

NO , nitrogenemonoxide
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitric_oxide


keyword search also gave :

Inducible nitric oxide contributes to viral pathogenesis following ...

Inhibition of Influenza Virus Replication by Nitric Oxidewww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › ... › v.73(10); Oct 1999‎
GF Rimmelzwaan - 1999

Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy Fails to Improve Outcome in ...

anti-viral resistance .... (v) the levels of potential antiviral nitric oxide (NO) generated and

Nitric Oxide in Influenza - Springer 2002
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Old 05-29-2013, 10:24 PM   #3
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Default Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats.

Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348507

Akamatsu A, Lee C, Morino H, Miura T, Ogata N, Shibata T.
Source
Taiko Pharmaceutical Co,, Ltd, Suita-shi, Osaka, Japan. [email protected]


Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to prove that the CD gas exposed up to 0.1 ppm (volume ratio) is judged as safe on the basis of a battery of toxicological examinations.

METHODS:
CD gas at 0.05 ppm or 0.1 ppm for 24 hours/day and 7 days/week was exposed to rats for 6 months under an unrestrained condition with free access to chow and water in a chamber so as to simulate the ordinary lifestyle in human. The control animals were exposed to air only. During the study period, the body weight as well as the food and water consumptions were recorded. After the 6-month exposure and the 2-week recovery period, animals were sacrificed and a battery of toxicological examinations, including biochemistry, hematology, necropsy, organ weights and histopathology, were performed.

RESULTS:
Well regulated levels of CD gas were exposed throughout the chamber over the entire study period. No CD gas-related toxicity sign was observed during the whole study period. No significant difference was observed in body weight gain, food and water consumptions, and relative organ weight. In biochemistry and hematology examinations, changes did not appear to be related to CD gas toxicity. In necropsy and histopathology, no CD gas-related toxicity was observed even in expected target respiratory organs.

CONCLUSIONS:
CD gas up to 0.1 ppm, exceeding the level effective against microbes, exposed to whole body in rats continuously for six months was not toxic, under a condition simulating the conventional lifestyle in human.

PMID:
22348507
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC3298712

Free PMC Article
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3298712/

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Old 05-31-2013, 01:58 PM   #4
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Default Inactivation of influenza virus haemagglutinin by chlorine dioxide

Inactivation of influenza virus haemagglutinin by chlorine dioxide: oxidation of the conserved tryptophan 153 residue in the receptor-binding site.
Ogata N.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22933663


J Gen Virol. 2012 Dec;93(Pt 12):2558-63. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.044263-0. Epub 2012 Aug 29.

Source
Research Institute, Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Suita, Osaka 564-0032, Japan. [email protected]

Abstract
Airborne influenza virus infection of mice can be prevented by gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). This study demonstrated that ClO(2) abolished the function of the haemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (H1N1) in a concentration-, time- and temperature-dependent manner. The IC(50) during a 2 min reaction with ClO(2) at 25 °C was 13.7 µM, and the half-life time of HA with 100 µM ClO(2) at 25 °C was 19.5 s. Peptides generated from a tryptic digest of ClO(2)-treated virus were analysed by mass spectrometry. An HA fragment, (150)NLLWLTGK(157) was identified in which the tryptophan residue (W153) was 32 mass units greater than expected. The W153 residue of this peptide, which is derived from the central region of the receptor-binding site of HA, is highly conserved. It was shown that W153 was oxidized to N-formylkynurenine in ClO(2)-treated virus. It was concluded that the inactivation of influenza virus by ClO(2) is caused by oxidation of W153 in HA, thereby abolishing its receptor-binding ability.

PMID: 22933663

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Old 06-01-2013, 07:46 AM   #5
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Controlled clinical evaluations of chlorine dioxide, chlorite and chlorate in man.
J R Lubbers, S Chauan, and J R Bianchine
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1569027/#

Environ Health Perspect. 1982 December; 46: 57–62.
PMCID: PMC1569027



Abstract

To assess the relative safety of chronically administered chlorine water disinfectants in man, a controlled study was undertaken. The clinical evaluation was conducted in the three phases common to investigational drug studies. Phase I, a rising dose tolerance investigation, examined the acute effects of progressively increasing single doses of chlorine disinfectants to normal healthy adult male volunteers. Phase II considered the impact on normal subjects of daily ingestion of the disinfectants at a concentration of 5 mg/l. for twelve consecutive weeks. Persons with a low level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase may be expected to be especially susceptible to oxidative stress; therefore, in Phase III, chlorite at a concentration of 5 mg/l. was administered daily for twelve consecutive weeks to a small group of potentially at-risk glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient subjects. Physiological impact was assessed by evaluation of a battery of qualitative and quantitative tests. The three phases of this controlled double-blind clinical evaluation of chlorine dioxide and its potential metabolites in human male volunteer subjects were completed uneventfully. There were no obvious undesirable clinical sequellae noted by any of the participating subjects or by the observing medical team. In several cases, statistically significant trends in certain biochemical or physiological parameters were associated with treatment; however, none of these trends was judged to have physiological consequence. One cannot rule out the possibility that, over a longer treatment period, these trends might indeed achieve proportions of clinical importance. However, by the absence of detrimental physiological responses within the limits of the study, the relative safety of oral ingestion of chlorine dioxide and its metabolites, chlorite and chlorate, was demonstrated.


Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version.
Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...00463-0059.pdf
or
http://jimhumble.com/files/mirror/envhper00463-0059.pdf


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Old 06-03-2013, 08:31 PM   #6
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Antiviral Effect of Chlorine Dioxide against Influenza Virus and Its
Application for Infection Control
Takanori Miura * and Takashi Shibata
Taiko Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, 3-34-14 Uchihonmachi, Suita, Osaka, 564-0032 Japan
http://www.benthamscience.com/open/t...71TOANTIMJ.pdf


The Open Antimicrobial Agents Journal, 2010,2,71-78 71

Abstract:

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has a strong antiviral effect, and can disinfect the surface of object and the air in space. In recent study on interaction between ClO2 and protein, ClO2 oxidatively modified tyrosine and tryptophan residues, and the pro-tein was structurally denatured. Since hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza virus A/H1N1 were inactivated by the reaction with ClO2, it is likely that denaturation of the proteins caused inactivation of the virus. A low concentration (0.03 ppm) of ClO2 gas, where people can stay for a long period of time without any harmful effect, prevented the death of mice caused by infection of influenza virus delivered as aerosol. We review current information based on the efficiency of ClO2 solution and gas, and also discuss the application of ClO2 against influenza pandemics outbreak.

CHLORINE DIOXIDE

Cl)2 (CAS. No. 10049-04-4) is a molecule with the molecular weight of 67.46, and it forms a stable radical [12].
Dauy, a British chemist, first discovered this molecule in 1811, by oxidizing potassium perchlorate [13]. ClO2 is yellowish gas at room temperature, and relatively easily dissolved in water [solubility in water is 20 g/L (0-5oC and 70-100 mmHg)] [13]. However, since ClO2 gas dissolved in water dissipates within a short period of time, the dissolved level of ClO2 gas decreases as time passes [13].
Consequently, ClO2 solution has been used by generation on site. ClO2 is an oxidizer, which is reduced to chlorite ion (ClO2-) by capturing an electron (ClO2 + e- > ClO2 - ). The redox potential (Eş) is relatively high as 0.95 V. ClO2-, in the presence of water, captures four electrons and is reduced to chloride ion (Cl-)(ClO2- + 2H2O + 4e- -> Cl- + 4OH-).................................................continued
http://www.benthamscience.com/open/t...71TOANTIMJ.pdf
or
https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q...n7x2djRbYNoO-A


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Old 06-04-2013, 11:48 PM   #7
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-------------
apparently the market expects that these product will be used in large
quantities in a severe pandemic (but not for seasonal flu )
Attached Images
File Type: png taiko2.PNG (26.9 KB, 3 views)
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Old 06-07-2013, 10:01 AM   #8
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I have been taking / drinking chlorine dioxide (Cl02) daily for 5 years now as a maintenance dose of 3 drops activated twice a day - 3 drops 28% sodium chlorite solution mixed with 3 drops 50% citric acid solution wait 20 seconds add 8 ounces of water and drink a 1ppm chlorine dioxide solution .

There is a specific Protocol for seasonal flu and colds.

A month ago I completed a 21 day MMS1 (chlorine dioxide) detox program.

Then I started and completed the MMS2 detox program for 21 days.

This is the 3rd time in 5 years that I have completed both detox programs.


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Last edited by kanuck57; 06-08-2013 at 10:39 AM. Reason: add info
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Old 06-07-2013, 10:51 AM   #9
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"taking" ?

I remember, there is one product, how was it called ?
by some Australian miner or such
But not approved, and some reports of severe side effects

OK, I found it:
http://jimhumble.org/
this one ?

let me search for a review ...

http://healthwyze.org/index.php/comp...mms-fraud.html


they should do a study
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Old 06-07-2013, 04:17 PM   #10
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Default Demonstrating that chlorine dioxide is a size-selective antimicrobial agent and ClO2 can be used as a local antiseptic

Demonstrating that chlorine dioxide is a size-selective antimicrobial agent and high purity ClO2 can be used as a local antiseptic

Zoltán Noszticzius, Maria Wittmann, Kristóf Kály-Kullai, Zoltán Beregvári, István Kiss, László Rosivall, János Szegedi
(Submitted on 18 Apr 2013)
http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.5163


Background / Aims ClO2, the so-called "ideal biocide", could also be applied as an antiseptic if it was understood why the solution's rapid killing of microbes does not cause any harm to humans or to animals. Our aim was to study both theoretically and experimentally its reaction-diffusion mechanism to find the source of that selectivity. Methods ClO2 permeation measurements through protein membranes were performed and the time delay of ClO2 transport due to reaction and diffusion was determined. To calculate ClO2 penetration depths and estimate bacterial killing times, approximate solutions of the reaction-diffusion equation were derived. Additionally, as a preliminary test, three patients with infected wounds were treated with a 300 ppm high purity ClO2 solution and the healing process was documented. Results The rate law of the reaction-diffusion model predicts that the killing time is proportional to the square of the characteristic size (e.g. diameter) of a body, thus, small ones will be killed extremely fast. For example, the killing time for a bacterium is on the order of milliseconds in a 300 ppm ClO2 solution. Thus, the few minutes of contact time (owing to the volatility of ClO2) is quite enough to kill all bacteria, but short enough to keep ClO2 penetration into the living tissues safely below 0.1 mm, minimizing cytotoxic effects. Pictures of successful wound healings confirm these considerations. Various properties of ClO2, advantageous for an antiseptic, are also discussed. Most importantly, bacteria are not able to develop resistance against ClO2 as it reacts with biological thiols which play a vital role in all living organisms. Conclusion Selectivity of ClO2 between humans and bacteria is based not on their different biochemistry, but on their different size. Preliminary clinical results encourage further research with this promising local antiseptic.

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Old 06-08-2013, 01:05 AM   #11
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917 hits at pubmed for chlorine dioxide
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23734992
gas concentrations needed to mitigate biological agent contamination can be
achieved and maintained safely in an ambulance

Inactivation of Mycobacteria mucogenicum in drinking water: chlorine resistance and mechanism analysis].

32 hits for chlorine dioxide and mice
sodium chlorate caused some thyroid gland neoplasms in male and female rats.
The pancreatic islet cell tumors in female mice may have been related to sodium
chlorate exposure.

sodium chlorite, within the range 0.1-30 mg/L, produces minimal immunotoxicity in mice.

Thyroid hormone levels were altered significantly after 4 and 21 days. NaClO, treatment induced a concentration-dependent increase in the incidence and severity of thyroid follicular cell hyperplasia

Chlorination of drinking water and cancer: a review.

The intravenous median lethal dose (LD50) of chlorine dioxide derivatives, chlorite
and chlorate, in rats was found to be 112.8 and 2,228.6 mg/kg,

Five compounds, i.e. chlorine dioxide, maltol, potassium bromate, sodium chlorite and sodium dehydroacetate, were found to induce micronuclei after a single ip injection

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3028769
whole body exposure

more effective as a 4 X gel in treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected excised wounds on mice
similar to polymyxin-bacitracin-neomycin ointment as a topical antiseptic

(4, 20, and 100 ppm as sodium chlorite) to C57L/J male via drinking water
no evidence of renal pathologies (1985)

1 ml and 0.1 ml, of Alcide liquid
no evidence of maternal toxicity among treated rats and mice.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1569033/
Toxicological effects of chlorite in the mouse.
1982
Mice exposed to as much as 100 ppm sodium chlorite (NaClO2) in their
drinking water for up to 120 days failed to demonstrate any histopathological
changes in kidney structure

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1569035/
Toxicological effects of chlorine dioxide, chlorite and chlorate
1982
alterations in hematologic parameters in all species tested.

The effects of chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite on erythrocytes of A/J and C57L/J mice.

Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat,
mouse and chicken blood.

-------------------------------
so, did they try to treat with ClO2 some mice infected with flu ??
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Old 10-16-2013, 07:13 PM   #12
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Default Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2)

Effects of various indoor environmental factors on the decay of chlorine dioxide gas concentration: Implications of its use against pandemic influenza
Hitomi Tsutsumi, Fumihiko Shinoda, Shin-ichi Tanabe, Masakazu Setsujima, Kouichi Nakahara

http://academic.research.microsoft.c...ation/57718005


Air-cleaning systems using a low concentration of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas for prevention against infection by the influenza virus have been developed. ClO2 gas is easily decomposed by indoor climate factors. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental factors on the decrease of ClO2 gas concentration. The reaction (decay) rate constant was also determined. High air temperatures and light irradiation accelerated the decrease of ClO2 gas concentration; the latter had the greatest influence on the decrease of ClO2 gas concentration among the conditions. A quicker decay of concentration and greater value of the reaction rate constant of ClO2 was found when a UV lamp was used; this is because the gas absorbs irradiation in the UV range. ClO2 gas concentration was significantly reduced when an evaporative humidifier was employed due to adsorption and a chemical reaction between the gas and the filter in the humidifier.
Journal: Hvac&r Research , vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 643-657, 2012
DOI: 10.1080/10789669.2011.615000



Effect of chlorine dioxide gas of extremely low concentration on absenteeism of schoolchildren
Norio Ogata, Takashi Shibata

http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Paper/6461352



Gas-generating devices of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) are used as deodorant of rooms. We happened to use a commercial tabletop deodorant canister that releases extremely low-concentration ClO2 gas in a school classroom as deodorant. We found retrospectively and unexpectedly that during a period of 38 consecutive school days the rate of school children absent from the school was markedly lower (1.5%) in a classroom where the ClO2 device was placed than that (4.0%) in a classroom where it was not placed. The percentages of absenteeism between these classrooms (1.5% vs. 4.0%) were significantly (p < 0.00001) different. The predominant causes of absenteeism during the period were common cold and influenza. Judging from the known virucidal activity of ClO2, our unexpected finding in the school classrooms strongly suggests the usefulness of extremely low-concentration ClO2 gas to prevent respiratory viral diseases in semi-closed areas, such as theaters, hospitals and aircraft, without necessitating evacuation.
Published in 2009.

More info on chlorine dioxide:
http://thisbluemarble.com/showthread.php?t=43757


Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) Message Board Forum:
http://www.g2cforum.org/


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Last edited by kanuck57; 10-17-2013 at 08:07 PM. Reason: add link
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