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Old 01-10-2014, 10:22 PM   #26
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ross View Post
That is most certainly not hyperbole , as I understand it there is
now a considerable body of research associating daily use with
serious consequences .
Says you.
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Old 01-10-2014, 10:30 PM   #27
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Originally Posted by CanadaSue View Post
DUI busts for marijuana may mean more tax dollars but any driving impairment potentially carries greater human costs.
I await the results of Colorado's experiment. Since pot use is already widespread then it will be interesting to see if there are actually any "greater human costs" or that the benefits are more valuable.

Prohibition has shown to have a lot of costs on the negative side of the ledger sheet.
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Old 01-10-2014, 10:32 PM   #28
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I'm not stating I'm against legalizing pot. They'll work out the kinks. I'm simply saying any accident due to any sort of impairment - from blowing 5 times over the limit to falling asleep at the wheel potentially carries a lot of harm.
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Old 01-11-2014, 12:02 AM   #29
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Originally Posted by CanadaSue View Post
Let's talk the stuff today - it's 10 times as strong & certainly merits impaired charges.
1 yr ago the same strong pot was being used and no one was being caught for DUI's with it.

Hell, from what I can tell 5 yrs ago there was very strong stuff.

No DUI's.

So why more in the past few months?
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Old 01-11-2014, 12:50 AM   #30
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Been enough of them here...
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Old 01-11-2014, 01:08 AM   #31
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Originally Posted by CanadaSue View Post
Been enough of them here...
So your area has had tests and done them on drivers who drive poorly?

Cali still, from what I can tell, doesn't.
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Old 01-11-2014, 06:28 AM   #32
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Quote:

Quote:
That is most certainly not hyperbole , as I understand it there is
now a considerable body of research associating daily use with
serious consequences .
Says you.
Kindly explain how an association with shrinking brain mass
is likely to have no consequences.

.
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Old 01-11-2014, 01:14 PM   #33
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Marijuana Users Have Abnormal Brain Structure and Poor Memory
Drug abuse appears to foster brain changes that resemble schizophrenia

December 16, 2013 | by Marla Paul

The younger drug abuse starts, the more abnormal the brain

CHICAGO --- Teens who were heavy marijuana users -- smoking it daily for about three years -- had abnormal changes in their brain structures related to working memory and performed poorly on memory tasks, reports a new Northwestern Medicine® study.

A poor working memory predicts poor academic performance and everyday functioning.

The brain abnormalities and memory problems were observed during the individuals’ early twenties, two years after they stopped smoking marijuana, which could indicate the long-term effects of chronic use. Memory-related structures in their brains appeared to shrink and collapse inward, possibly reflecting a decrease in neurons.

The study also shows the marijuana-related brain abnormalities are correlated with a poor working memory performance and look similar to schizophrenia-related brain abnormalities. Over the past decade, Northwestern scientists, along with scientists at other institutions, have shown that changes in brain structure may lead to changes in the way the brain functions.

This is the first study to target key brain regions in the deep subcortical gray matter of chronic marijuana users with structural MRI and to correlate abnormalities in these regions with an impaired working memory. Working memory is the ability to remember and process information in the moment and -- if needed -- transfer it to long-term memory. Previous studies have evaluated the effects of marijuana on the cortex, and few have directly compared chronic marijuana use in otherwise healthy individuals and individuals with schizophrenia.

The younger the individuals were when they started chronically using marijuana, the more abnormally their brain regions were shaped, the study reports. The findings suggest that these regions related to memory may be more susceptible to the effects of the drug if abuse starts at an earlier age.

“The study links the chronic use of marijuana to these concerning brain abnormalities that appear to last for at least a few years after people stop using it,” said lead study author Matthew Smith, an assistant research professor in psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. “With the movement to decriminalize marijuana, we need more research to understand its effect on the brain.”

The paper was published Dec. 16 in the journal Schizophrenia Bulletin.

In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug and young adults have the highest -- and growing -- prevalence of use. Decriminalization of the drug may lead to greater use.

Because the study results examined one point in time, a longitudinal study is needed to definitively show if marijuana is responsible for the brain changes and memory impairment. It is possible that the abnormal brain structures reveal a pre-existing vulnerability to marijuana abuse. But evidence that the younger a subject started using the drug the greater his brain abnormality indicates marijuana may be the cause, Smith said.

The groups in the study started using marijuana daily between 16 to 17 years of age for about three years. At the time of the study, they had been marijuana free for about two years. A total of 97 subjects participated, including matched groups of healthy controls, subjects with a marijuana use disorder, schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and schizophrenia subjects with a marijuana use disorder. The subjects who used marijuana did not abuse any other drugs.

Few studies have examined marijuana’s effect on the deep regions in the brain -- the ‘subcortical gray matter’ below the noodle-shaped cortex. The study also is unique in that it looked at the shapes of the striatum, globus pallidus and thalamus, structures in the subcortex that are critical for motivation and working memory.

The Marijuana and Schizophrenia Connection

Chronic use of marijuana may contribute to changes in brain structure that are associated with having schizophrenia, the Northwestern research shows. Of the 15 marijuana smokers who had schizophrenia in the study, 90 percent started heavily using the drug before they developed the mental disorder. Marijuana abuse has been linked to developing schizophrenia in prior research.

“The abuse of popular street drugs, such as marijuana, may have dangerous implications for young people who are developing or have developed mental disorders,” said co-senior study author John Csernansky, M.D., chair of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Northwestern Memorial Hospital. “This paper is among the first to reveal that the use of marijuana may contribute to the changes in brain structure that have been associated with having schizophrenia.”

Chronic marijuana use could augment the underlying disease process associated with schizophrenia, Smith noted. “If someone has a family history of schizophrenia, they are increasing their risk of developing schizophrenia if they abuse marijuana,” he said.

While chronic marijuana smokers and chronic marijuana smokers with schizophrenia both had brain changes related to the drug, subjects with the mental disorder had greater deterioration in the thalamus. That structure is the communication hub of the brain and is critical for learning, memory and communications between brain regions. The brain regions examined in this study also affect motivation, which is already notably impaired in people with schizophrenia.

“A tremendous amount of addiction research has focused on brain regions traditionally connected with reward/aversion function, and thus motivation,” noted co-senior study author Hans Breiter, M.D., professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and director of the Warren Wright Adolescent Center at Feinberg and Northwestern Memorial. “This study very nicely extends the set of regions of concern to include those involved with working memory and higher level cognitive functions necessary for how well you organize your life and can work in society.”

“If you have schizophrenia and you frequently smoke marijuana, you may be at an increased risk for poor working memory, which predicts your everyday functioning,” Smith said.

The research was supported by grants R01 MH056584 and P50 MH071616 from the National Institute of Mental Health and grants P20 DA026002 and RO1 DA027804 from National Institute of Drug Abuse, all of the National Institutes of Health.
http://www.northwestern.edu/newscent...or-memory.html
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Old 01-11-2014, 09:47 PM   #34
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Ross View Post
Kindly explain how an association with shrinking brain mass is likely to have no consequences.
You said:

Originally Posted by Ross
For daily users there is considerable evidence showing brain damage including brain shrinkage and for some the effects are catastrophic.


Since there is not considerable evidence and the catastrophic effects are only your imagination then your statement is a piece of ridiculous hyperbole.

There was one study that I mentioned previously which Sandyd kindly posted. The study was about heavy pot use and schizophrenia. The authors chose adolescents to study because that is when schizophrenia symptoms ramp up. They took pictures of the striatum, globus pallidus and thalamus because that is thought to be the place that goes wrong which creates schizophrenia symptoms. There has long been a concern that people with certain brain problems should not use recreation drugs which I stated in a previous post.

The conclusions to make from this study is:
  • That marijuana use is not problem free for everyone
  • Adolescents should not use any recreational drugs
  • Anybody with schizophrenia or has family history of schizophrenia should not use recreational drugs.

BTW, temporary shrunken brain is not necessarily harmful. Lots of things shrink the brain . . . including pregnancy.
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Old 01-12-2014, 06:13 AM   #35
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Dyrt said ...
Quote:
Since there is not considerable evidence and the catastrophic effects
are only your imagination then your statement is a piece of ridiculous
hyperbole.
There are many studies showing brain damage and to suggest
there is only one is easily shown to be incorrect.

I do want to spend time on this but here is a short list
of damage studies which I found with no effort at all .
Many many more are available via a quick Internet search .

Quote:
"The striking finding is that, even though the
mice were exposed to very low drug doses,
and only for a brief period during adolescence,
their brain abnormalities persisted into adulthood."
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263936.php



Quote:
Through the MRI scans, the researchers found that heavy users displayed
abnormalities in all the three brain regions (striatum, thalamus and globus pallidus),
irrespective of whether they had schizophrenic disorder or not.
The volume of the thalamus was found greatly reduced in heavy users.
http://www.universityherald.com/arti...university.htm


Quote:
Heavy marijuana use in the teenage years could damage brain structures vital
to memory and reasoning, a new study suggests.
http://www.drugfree.org/join-togethe...ructures-study


Quote:
Researchers say the connectivity disturbances they saw in the study,
particularly in the hippocampus and commissural fibres, may underlie
the memory impairment and other cognitive deficits that are observed
in long-term heavy cannabis users.
http://www.mcri.edu.au/news/2012/aug...nabis-use.aspx

.
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Last edited by Ross; 01-12-2014 at 06:24 AM.
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