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Old 08-16-2009, 07:35 PM   #26
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Influenza means birds; it always means birds. We have lost track of the root cause carriers of this pandemic. Birds.
Is that true?

How about Flu B or Flu C?

How about the seasonal Flu's? Horse flu's?

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WHO's to say it's not the birds that will cause the killer strain of H1N1 to develop. Think about it....when a bird catched H5N1, it drops dead in it's tracks. But, what happens if a bird contracts H1N1?
Not all birds did, many waterbirds were asymptomatic (it's our monocultured overstressed poultry flocks that really died en masse). H5N1 was very nasty for a lot of wild birds but it did spread all around the old world which is proof itself it didn't kill all birds.

I don't think that birds catching this H1N1 is relevant for now. Not at the rate it's spreading through human communities.

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We started the global flu watch by tracking sick&dying birds. But, were there many reports of sick and dying birds in 1918?
I don't think there were. Some people have been digging around for them but that didn't bring up much as far as i can remember. The 1918 sequences probably aren't entirely avian and the 'mystery bird' they were looking for might be a pig...see Barry for that.

It's not just the birds although they play a big role (some parts of the current strain are avian).

Influenza A exists in many forms and it has reservoirs in some mammalian species.

For fun:
~ What type of flu infected those horses in the last Australian outbreak?
~ And how related would that be to our current pandemic H1N1?
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Old 08-16-2009, 09:03 PM   #27
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Is that true?

How about Flu B or Flu C?

How about the seasonal Flu's? Horse flu's?



Not all birds did, many waterbirds were asymptomatic (it's our monocultured overstressed poultry flocks that really died en masse). H5N1 was very nasty for a lot of wild birds but it did spread all around the old world which is proof itself it didn't kill all birds.

I don't think that birds catching this H1N1 is relevant for now. Not at the rate it's spreading through human communities.



I don't think there were. Some people have been digging around for them but that didn't bring up much as far as i can remember. The 1918 sequences probably aren't entirely avian and the 'mystery bird' they were looking for might be a pig...see Barry for that.

It's not just the birds although they play a big role (some parts of the current strain are avian).

Influenza A exists in many forms and it has reservoirs in some mammalian species.

For fun:
~ What type of flu infected those horses in the last Australian outbreak?
~ And how related would that be to our current pandemic H1N1?
I believe that influenza always has an avian origin. The point being that maybe we should be more concerned about the influenza strains birds that carry easily (won't kill them), that can also infect people. What good does it do to quarantine people if birds are going to spread it around anyway?

Also see...post #19

Monday, July 27, 2009
Study shows poultry resistant to 2009 H1N1
Recent studies suggest that commercial poultry is resistant to the newly emerged 2009 H1N1 flu strain which has now assumed pandemic status among humans. A research paper to be published in the Journal of General Virology from the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Riems, Germany showed that chickens in contact with infected pigs failed to develop the disease.
The 2009 H1N1 virus will spread from infected pigs to their pen mates under controlled experimental conditions carried out in a Bio-Safety Level 3+ facility. In addition, a recent study conducted at the Southeast Poultry Laboratory in Athens, Ga., demonstrated that chickens, turkeys and ducks were refractory to 2009 H1N1 virus isolated from human patients.

The focus of research is now directed at developing a suitable vaccine to protect humans since it is anticipated that there will be an upsurge in cases in the U.S. in fall and winter. Readers are referred to the July 10 edition of Science, which incorporates two articles on the origin of the 2009 H1N1 virus and its genetic characteristics.

In the context of commercial production, no individual suspected of being infected with 2009 H1N1 or any influenza virus should have any contact with live poultry during the clinical phase and for at least seven days thereafter.
http://poultryproductionnews.blogspot.com/2009/07/study-shows-poultry-resistant-to-2009.html


and listen to post #20....WHAT MADE THE 1918 SWINE FLU SO BAD WAS ONLY A COUPLE OF AVIAN GENES...MAYBE THE 2009 SWINE FLU WILL IS DESTINED TO AQUIRE THOSE GENES
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Old 08-16-2009, 09:38 PM   #28
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IMO, what this article leaves out is the birds have no problem carrying the H1N1 virus, so maybe the question is not whether Humans gave it to pigs or visa-versa; but whether birds were passing it between the two. In other words, what good did it do for Egypt to cull all those pigs if asymptomatic migratory birds are still flying it into the country. Birds may be playing a similar role as the plague infected rats in the 14th century. I don't remember hearing about any rats dying of the Black Death.

Virus Crossover Pattern Traced
by Lauran Neergaard-Associated Press
February 16, 1999 WASHINGTON--The 1918 flu that killed more than 20 million people may have quietly percolated for several years, maybe even trading back and forth between pigs and people, until suddenly growing strong enough to become the world's worst pandemic.

That's the latest theory from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, which reported Monday that researchers for the first time have completely analyzed a critical gene from the killer influenza virus.

Gene May Have Been "Sleeping"
The gene likely "was adapting in humans or in swine for maybe several years before it broke out as a pandemic virus," said molecular biologist Ann Reid, lead author of the study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

But "we can't tell whether it went from pigs into humans or from humans into pigs," she said.

Different influenza strains circle the glove annually. Usually, they're fairly similar to viruses people have caught in the past. Every so often a strain tough enough to kill millions emerges, and experts warn that the world is overdue for another pandemic.

That's why understanding the 1918 flu's genes are important. Scientists need to know what made that strain the deadliest ever -- and why it struck down mostly young, healthy people -- to better react if similar killer flu emerges again.

Researchers Plot Virus' Path
Most experts believe that genetically stable flu viruses reside harmlessly in birds, but that occasionally one of these bird viruses infects pigs. The swine immune system attacks the virus, forcing it to change genetically to survive. If it then spreads to humans, the result can be devastating.

In two other pandemics -- the 1957 Asian flu and 1968 Hong Kong flu -- viruses apparently made a fast jump from birds to pigs to humans. That's because human flu genes from those pandemics appear very similar to avian flu genes.

But the new study finds no similarity between those bird genes and a key gene in the 1918 flu.

1918 Virus Different
Reid studied lung tissue preserved from autopsies of two soldiers who died from influenza, at Ft. Jackson, S.C. and Camp Upton, N.Y., and from the frozen corpse of an Alaskan woman. Reid fully mapped the hemagglutinin gene, which is key to influenza infection taking hold.
She discovered that the hemagglutinin closely resembles mammal genes.

So instead of making that fast bird-pigs-people jump that scientists expect in a pandemic, the 1918 virus apparently evolved in mammals -- either pigs or humans -- over many years before suddenly mutating into a mass killer. It may have percolated in humans as early as 1900, she said.
Viral Route Not Certain

But Reid can't tell if pigs developed the mutation that turned the virus into a killer and gave it to people -- or if people gave it to pigs.

Among the evidence: a huge wave of mild influenza struck people during the spring of 1918, but no pigs were sick. Then the flu struck again in the fall. This time it suddenly killed millions of people, and this time pigs were sick, too -- but people who had the mild spring flu were reported to be immune.

Regardless of which species evolved the killer strain, the long incubation period has implications for predicting future flu outbreaks. "We may have to expand our concept of where pandemics come from," Reid said.

Institute scientists are analyzing other genes from the 1918 virus, but Reid said the mystery so far is getting deeper. "The more you study it, the more perplexing it becomes."

http://pages.suddenlink.net/tjohnsto...hist/flu2.html
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Old 08-16-2009, 09:51 PM   #29
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...need I say more?
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Old 08-16-2009, 09:58 PM   #30
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I think that's one of Alan's chickens...
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Old 08-16-2009, 10:03 PM   #31
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Swine, birds & man have lived together this way for a looooooooong time. While periodically this throws up some interesting illnesses, that is not going to change was is practiced because, for the farmers/fa,ilies involved - it works.

Our continued existence is not & never will be risk free.
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Old 08-17-2009, 12:16 AM   #32
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They should call it China White

Formulation of a Dry Powder Influenza Vaccine for Nasal Delivery
Robert J. Garmise,1 Kevin Mar,2 Timothy M. Crowder,3,4 C. Robin Hwang,2 Abstract
The purpose of this research was to prepare a dry powder vaccine formulation containing whole inactivated influenza virus (WIIV) and a mucoadhesive compound suitable for nasal delivery.

Introduction
Influenza is a highly contagious disease that causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. Most deaths currently associated with influenza in industrialized countries occur among the elderly—those over 65 years of age.1 Vaccination has a major impact on preventing the epidemic spread of the disease. The World Health Organization recommends that elderly persons, and persons of any age who are considered to be at high risk because of underlying health conditions, be vaccinated. Influenza vaccination can reduce both health care costs and productivity losses associated with influenza illness....

...FluMist must be stored as a frozen liquid and thawed immediately before use to maintain potency. In the developing world, in particular, there is an urgent need to overcome such cold chain requirements and to provide single-use, nonrefillable delivery technologies that require minimal training.

While dry powder vaccines have the potential to meet requirements, there have been very few reported studies investigating IN delivery of dry powder vaccines. Furthermore, the powders used in prior studies were not fully characterized, and there was no description of a device suitable for reproducible IN powder delivery in humans.13,14,17

Powder Preparation of Vaccine
Lyophilization
The final formulation contained 100 μg of influenza vaccine blended in 10 mg of lactose or trehalose. A solution with 5 mg/mL of total solids was to be prepared. For vaccine antigen samples, 1 mL of vaccine suspension was thawed and added to the disaccharide solution, stirred, and placed in vials for freeze-drying (Kinetics Flexi-Dry, Kinetics Thermal Systems, Stone Ridge, NY). The vials were frozen at –20°C and placed on the manifold at a temperature of –55°C and chamber pressure of 5 x 10-3mm Hg. A drying time of 48 hours was adopted following preliminary experiments with trehalose. To minimize humidity effects, subsequent work was completed in a dry box (<15% relative humidity)....

Powder Preparation of Vaccine
Lyophilization
The freeze-dried material formed white, porous cakes showing slight shrinkage, but no large-scale collapse was observed. The morphology of lyophilized material was observed using SEM (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Scanning electron micrographs of (a) top surface (500×) and (b) cross-section (500×) of the lyophilized cake.


http://www.aapspharmscitech.org/view.asp?art=pt070119
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Old 08-17-2009, 02:38 AM   #33
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...need I say more?
You may not "need' to, but something makes me think you will..,
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Old 08-17-2009, 08:10 AM   #34
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You may not "need' to, but something makes me think you will..,
Interspecies transmission may be difficult, but look how many times we roll the dice.

Molecular constraints to interspecies transmission of viral pathogens

Abstract

The successful replication of a viral pathogen in a host is a complex process involving many interactions. These interactions develop from the coevolution of pathogen and host and often lead to a species specificity of the virus that can make interspecies transmissions difficult.

Nevertheless, viruses do sporadically cross species barriers into other host populations, including humans. In zoonotic infections, many of these interspecies transfer events are dead end, where transmission is confined only to the animal-to-human route but sometimes viruses adapt to enable spread from human to human.

A pathogen must overcome many hurdles to replicate successfully in a foreign host. The viral pathogen must enter the host cell, replicate with the assistance of host factors, evade inhibitory host products, exit the first cell and move on to the next, and possibly leave the initial host and transmit to another. Each of these stages may require adaptive changes in the pathogen.

Although the factors that influence each stage of the replication and transmission of most agents have not been resolved, the genomics of both hosts and pathogens are now at hand and we have begun to understand some of the molecular changes that enable some viruses to adapt to a new host.
http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v10...ll/nm1151.html


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Old 08-17-2009, 08:30 PM   #35
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I don't think Americans would appreciate the government telling them what medical procedures they could have; elective or not.

Alberta health officials ready for swine-flu outbreak

Alberta's chief medical officer of health, Dr. André Corriveau, seen in April, said the province's pandemic plan focuses on prevention.

Alberta would be ready to postpone elective surgeries and call on retired doctors and nurses if the swine flu pandemic hits the province hard this fall.

Dr. André Corriveau, Alberta's chief medical officer, said Monday the province is ready to respond to a potential worsening of the H1N1 outbreak.

The biggest challenge would be dealing with the escalation in demand for medical services, while health-care providers may get sick themselves.

"If things get out of hand in terms of cancelling elective procedures, we can use some of the resources that are freed up that way to provide more intensive care to people who are sicker and calling in other people to help with the vaccine programs. So these things are all being looked at," he told CBC News.

Corriveau said the province's pandemic program continues to focus on prevention, including basic steps of washing one's hands frequently and staying home when sick.

"We expect to be dealing with a regular influenza virus, albeit novel," said Corriveau of the upcoming flu season.

"At this point, the doom and gloom scenarios are much less likely than they might have been … back in the spring when we didn't know … much about this virus."


http://www.cbc.ca/canada/edmonton/st...mic-preps.html

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Old 08-17-2009, 09:07 PM   #36
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I dig the nurse.
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Old 08-17-2009, 10:08 PM   #37
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I don't get the point you're trying to make.
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Old 08-17-2009, 11:41 PM   #38
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I don't get the point you're trying to make.
....that bird flu is going to stop people from being happy?
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Old 08-17-2009, 11:46 PM   #39
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LOL - it can get at the end of a long line, then.
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Old 08-18-2009, 01:46 PM   #40
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I don't get the point you're trying to make.
I believe that paragraph three of the "SuperFlu SuperSpeculation" charter states:

......."This section does not have a point."
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Old 08-18-2009, 02:08 PM   #41
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I don't get the point you're trying to make.
The nurse is absolutely HAWT. I'd hit that like Col. Tibbets on a Hiroshima flyover. Love the naughty nurse thing.
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Old 08-19-2009, 06:10 AM   #42
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The nurse is absolutely HAWT. I'd hit that like Col. Tibbets on a Hiroshima flyover. Love the naughty nurse thing.
I always wondered why you missed SuperFluSuperSpec so much...
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Old 08-19-2009, 11:32 AM   #43
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Creationist see pandemic as a God-given opportunity to Wedge in their belief in a higher power.


Darwinists' swine flu science

It never ceases to amaze me how intellectually condescending evolutionary naturalists can be. Keep in mind, these are folks who believe that an indescribably tiny wad of nothingness exploded into a fully functional, structured, and ordered universe of orbiting planets and complex creatures without any supernatural agency involved. They are the ones who cling to a theory known as spontaneous generation – the notion that dead matter can just suddenly pop to life. They are the ones who champion a man (Charles Darwin) who suggested that Africans were more closely related to gorillas than Caucasians. They are the ones who believe that a wolf-like animal with hooves took to the water, lost its legs, and morphed into a whale (Cetaceans). If anyone should go easy on the intellectual condescension, it's these people. But they don't.



In a recent article for Live Science magazine that attempts to prove Darwin by using the swine flu of all things, author Robert Roy Britt sneers, "Anyone who thinks evolution is for the birds should not be afraid of swine flu...if there's no such thing as evolution, then there's no such thing as a new strain of swine flu infecting people." His supposedly witty remarks were meant to mock creationists, castigating their "junk science."

But the intellectual dishonesty inherent in Britt's statement is almost as obvious as his failed attempt at humor. Britt is using a common ploy of Darwinists: confuse people into believing that their utterly unsubstantiated speculation of species-to-species macro-evolution is synonymous with the universally accepted scientific fact of adaptation and development within a species (sometimes called micro-evolution).

The word "evolve" simply means to change, alter, or develop in some way. Everyone recognizes that changes in gene frequencies happen and are expressed in a population over time. Unfortunately for the Darwinists, that is not anywhere close to the "molecules to man" postulation Charles Darwin made (also known as "goo to you by way of the zoo"). The contention between Darwinists and those of us who believe in a Creator then is about what kind of evolution is possible and observable.

Britt concludes that since swine flu is a mutated form of the influenza virus, it proves that viruses evolve to survive, thus confirming Darwin's theory. The only real problem with Britt's conclusion is that it is utterly absurd. For Darwin to be affirmed, the swine flu would have to demonstrate some new genetic information that hadn't been present in the original influenza strain. It doesn't. No new genetic information is present – just mutated forms of pre-existing material.

Observational science also demonstrates that various strains of flu viruses will blend together their genetic codes, creating a new form that evades our defenses. But again, what we're left with is merely a conglomeration of pre-existing genetic information – nothing new.

Interestingly, when pressed, Britt and other adherents to the Darwinian faith would be forced to admit that they cannot produce a single example of mutations creating new genetic information. But how can this be? In order for a frog to morph into a lizard, it is going to need its genes to do some pretty wild and crazy productive mutations. And when you consider the entire premise of Darwinian macro-evolution states that all creatures (not just frogs) are constantly experiencing these positive mutations, the weight of the evidence crushes evolutionary naturalists. If Darwin was right, we should be able to observe and replicate gene mutations that yield new information nearly everywhere we look. We simply cannot.

Meanwhile, what we can find are innumerable cases of destructive gene mutations, where we end up with less genetic information than what was originally present. Take the recent discovery of perfectly preserved octopus remains. The discovery revealed that these ancient octopi actually had more genetic information than do modern octopi. Call it "Darwin in reverse." Both horizontal and destructive mutations support the creationist model...and both devastate Darwin's.

The truth is that the swine flu evolving does nothing to prove Darwin's ridiculous "molecules to man" evolutionary model. That his modern-day prophets are so willing to distort and manipulate a flu virus in order to substantiate his wild theory only proves how they are far more rigid in their commitment to their Darwinian faith than the most rabid fundamentalist preacher is to the Bible.

Perhaps in Mr. Britt's next piece, he could lay off the condescension towards creationists and instead enlighten us all as to why he defends a theory whose author proclaimed that blacks were genetically inferior to whites. To me, I think that's the very definition of junk science.

http://www.onenewsnow.com/Perspectiv...aspx?id=524902








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Old 08-19-2009, 08:58 PM   #44
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These studies indicate that antibiotics may be advisable in swine flu cases.

Scientists Learn Why The Flu May Turn Deadly: Influenza Virus ‘Paralyzes’ The Immune System

JScienceDaily (May 5, 2009) — As the swine flu continues its global spread, researchers from the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia have discovered important clues about why influenza is more severe in some people than it is in others.

In their research study published online in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, the scientists show that the influenza virus can actually paralyze the immune systems of otherwise healthy individuals, leading to severe secondary bacterial infections, such as pneumonia. Furthermore, this immunological paralysis can be long-lived, which is important to know when developing treatment strategies to combat the virus.

According to Kathleen Sullivan, M.D., Ph.D., the senior researcher involved in the study and Chief of the Division of Allergy and Immunology at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, “We have a very limited understanding of why some people who get influenza simply have a bad cold and other people become very sick and even die. The results of this study give us a much better sense of the mechanisms underlying bacterial infections arising on top of the viral infection.”

Sullivan and colleagues recruited pediatric patients with severe influenza and examined the level of cytokines, which serve as the first line initiators of immune response, in the blood plasma. Although they found elevated levels of cytokines, they also found a decreased response of toll-like receptors, which activate immune cell responses as a result of invading microbes. This suggests that the diminished response of these receptors may be responsible for the paralysis of the immune system, leading to secondary bacterial infections.

The influenza patients were compared with patients with moderate influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and a control group of healthy individuals. The immune paralysis appeared to be specifically a result of influenza infection and was not seen in patients with respiratory syncytial virus. This process might explain why one quarter of children who die from influenza, die from a bacterial infection occurring on top of the virus.

“Despite major medical advances since the devastating flu outbreak of 1918 and 1919, influenza virus infection remains a very serious threat,” said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, “and the current swine flu outbreak is a grim reminder of this fact. The work by Dr. Sullivan and colleagues brings us a step closer to understanding exactly what goes wrong in some people who get the flu, so, ultimately, physicians can develop more effective treatment strategies.”

Journal reference:
1.Meredith L. Heltzer, Susan E. Coffin, Kelly Maurer, Asen Bagashev, Zhe Zhang, Jordan S. Orange, and Kathleen E. Sullivan. Immune dysregulation in severe influenza. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2009; DOI: 10.1189/jlb.1108710
http://www.immuneenhance.com/cancer-...immune-system/


Hematologic Abnormalities Associated with Influenza A Infection: A Report of 3 Cases

RICE, JAMES MD; RESAR, LINDA M. S. MD
tInfluenza A is associated with leukopenia, although it is not reported to cause isolated thrombocytopenia, anemia, or pancytopenia.

The authors report three pediatric patients with transient cytopenias associated with influenza A infection, all of whom had evidence for influenza A infection by direct immunofluorescence from nasopharyngeal aspirates. In all patients, cytopenias were transient and improved as their viral symptoms resolved. All patients improved spontaneously.

This is the first report of transient pancytopenia, anemia, or thrombocytopenia associated with influenza A infection. Given the high frequency of influenza A infections during the winter months, it is important to recognize the associated hematologic findings.
http://journals.lww.com/amjmedsci/Ab...ed_with.9.aspx

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Old 08-19-2009, 10:30 PM   #45
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I always wondered why you missed SuperFluSuperSpec so much...
Plus the fact that it brings the bottom lurkers up from the depths like a spotlight dangling behind a trawler.
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Old 08-20-2009, 08:24 PM   #46
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Connection Between Ice Cream, Flu And Sinus Infections

A scoop of artificially flavored ice cream from brands such as Baskin Robbins, Wendy’s or Dairy Queen may cause fever, headache, congestion or general malaise in 24 hours. It will go away in 24 hours, leaving behind the development of a raging sinus infection. So it’s a fake flu within 24 hours and a sinus infection within 48 hours. The theory is that unwritten ingredients such as ‘natural’ and artificial flavorings are the ones causing the bogus flu and sinus infections.

It appears that the term ‘natural’ and artificial flavorings serve as umbrellas for the unmentioned compounds. The fast food industry depends a lot on artificial flavorings to standardize the product. The correct ‘mouth feel’ had to be attained. The addition of starches, emulsfiers, stabilizers, sugars and fats achieves the product’s end result.

http://odyb.net/food-cooking/connect...us-infections/
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Old 08-20-2009, 08:28 PM   #47
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Swine Flu Goes Deeper Into the Body Than Regular Flu—Even Into Intestines

Researchers have revealed that seasonal flu and swine flu cause different symptoms because they have different destinations in the body: the seasonal flu lodges itself mainly in the nasal passages, while the swine flu virus travels into the trachea and lung, and even makes its way to the intestines. It also replicates more quickly and causes more damage than the seasonal flu, according to a pair of studies published in Science.

Flu viruses wreak their havoc by binding to molecules on the surface of cells in mammals’ respiratory tracts, including humans. But the researchers found that the swine flu binds to surfaces that are unusually deep in the respiratory tract, such as the branches within the lungs known as bronchioles. The scientists used ferrets for the experiments because the animals respond to the flu much the way humans do. Research teams in the United States and the Netherlands found that the new H1N1 flu virus replicated more extensively in the respiratory tract, going to the lungs, whereas the seasonal flu virus stayed in the animals’ nasal cavity. The U.S. team also found that the new virus, unlike the seasonal one, went into the ferrets’ intestinal tract [Forbes], which explains the unusual symptoms of nausea and vomiting that some swine flu patients experienced.

Such information could prove crucial to the public health response to the swine flu, which so far has sickened more than 77,000 people worldwide, killing at least 332, according to the World Health Organization.
The information about the virus’s respiratory targets is of interest because a virus that binds deep in the lung can trigger potentially fatal pneumonia if the person infected mounts a strong inflammation in response to it…. “The binding and replication of the pandemic H1N1 virus in the lower respiratory tract in ferrets is consistent with the viral pneumonia that is observed in humans” [New Scientist], says Ron Fouchier, lead author of the Dutch study. Viral pneumonia, which can kill within hours, was one reason why the 1918 flu pandemic was so deadly.

Although swine flu caused more severe illness in the ferrets than did seasonal flu, the U.S. study found that swine flu is passed less efficiently than the seasonal flu. The U.S. researchers said the ferrets in their study didn’t transmit the swine flu strains they used, taken from patients in California, Texas and Mexico, as efficiently as seasonal flu strains. Swine flu doesn’t latch on to healthy cells in the human respiratory tract as easily as seasonal flu because of a genetic mutation…. Inefficient transmission suggests the virus would need to mutate to become as transmissible as seasonal flu or the 1918 pandemic virus [Bloomberg]. The transmission verdict is still out, however, because the Dutch scientists found that both strains were transmitted equally easily.

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/80...-seasonal-flu/
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Old 08-21-2009, 09:56 PM   #48
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THE GATOR VECTOR!


Do crocodilians get the flu? Looking for influenza A in captive crocodilians
Abstract
It is well established that several wild aquatic bird species serve as reservoirs for the influenza A virus. It has also been shown that the influenza A virus can be transmitted to mammalian species such as tigers and domestic cats and dogs through ingestion of infected birds.

Another group of animals that should also be considered as potential hosts for the influenza A virus are the crocodilians. Many crocodilian species share aquatic environments with wild birds that are known to harbor influenza viruses. In addition, many large crocodilians utilize birds as a significant food source. Given these factors in addition to the close taxonomic proximity of aves to the crocodilians, it is feasible to ask whether crocodilian species may also harbor the influenza A virus.

Here we analyzed 37 captive crocodilians from two locations in Florida (plus 5 wild bird fecal-samples from their habitat) to detect the presence of influenza A virus. Several sample types were examined. Real-time RT-PCR tests targeting the influenza A matrix gene were positive for four individual crocodilians - Alligator sinensis, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman latirostris and Crocodylus niloticus. Of the seven serum samples tested with the avian influenza virus agar gel immunodiffusion assay, three showed a nonspecific reaction to the avian influenza virus antigen - A. sinensis, P. trigonatus and C. niloticus (C. latirostris was not tested). Viable virus could not be recovered from RT-PCR-positive samples, although this is consistent with previous attempts at viral isolation in embryonated chicken eggs with crocodilian viruses. J. Exp. Zool. 309A:571-580, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/j...TRY=1&SRETRY=0



RELATED


Disney Channel fighting swine flu

OK, so that headline probably conjured images of Hannah Montana wearing a protective face mask. We're not there yet.

But Disney Network did just announce it is increasing the rotation of an episode of its shortform series "Can You Teach My Alligator Manners?" to show kids the importance of washing their hands and other basic hygiene to protect against spreading the flu.

"A boy and his alligator help preschoolers learn good manners especially when one has a cold or flu," reads the release. "The two-minute segment, entitled 'Get Well Manners,' stars Mikey and his pet alligator Al, who remind young viewers to wipe their nose with a tissue, cover their mouth when they cough or sneeze and wash their hands frequently."

http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=aligator+flu&form=QB&qs=n#focal=de15acdbb 846b63ed665e2e3db120dec&furl=http%3A%2F%2Freporter .blogs.com%2F.a%2F6a00d83451d69069e201156f6f492b97 0c-320wi
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Old 08-21-2009, 10:10 PM   #49
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A Note on Swine Flu
A few customers have asked about Swine Flu, fruit, and our packing procedures here at FruitGuys.

First some information: According to the CDC, Swine flu is transmitted primarily though human contact, not food; we have always recommended that all fruit and produce (organic or conventional) be thoroughly washed before consumption; none of the fruit in any of our current mixes comes from Mexico; and our production crews wear gloves while packing your produce as per general food safety standards.

We take great care in providing you delicious, safe, farm-fresh produce and will continue to do so. We know that this flu is an important and concerning health issue and if you have any questions that we can address, please free to contact me personally. I thank you for your business and your commitment to wellness.
- Chris Mittelstaedt, Founder & CEO.

FruitGuy Noir: The Case of the Crate on the Web

They were standing around the FruitCrate when all heck broke loose. Jane was trying to convince John that "grapefruit" descended from a dinosaur egg-sized fruit-grape that used to grow under 20-foot-tall ferns. John was no Doe - he had been around the office and considered himself a connoisseur of fruit-flavored foods. He claimed to know every Jolly fruit flavor of roll-up and Rancher imaginable to man. "You're wrong Jane. That fruit," he pointed confidently, "is nothing less than sour apple flavor packaged up in a yellow wrapper. I've read that somewhere - in English and in French."

I hated to break up the party but, like my pops told me long ago, when lies hit you in the face like a fish flying through a window, thrown by a guy on a unicycle speaking Swedish in iambic pentameter, its still gonna smell rotten. Mom's lessons I could never make out.

I slipped between them and tilted my hat back so they could see my eyes. "Co-workers," I announced. "This is a FruitGuys crate. It comes with information." They started to look nervous. "You just have to know where to get it. One, The FruitGuys website lists the fruit in your crate every week. Two, those fruit mixes are different by region - The FruitGuys find local and regional fruit where available." I held up an apple. It seemed so simple. "You need weekly photos and descriptions of fruit? Go to fruitguys.com." They looked puzzled. "Type with one finger, then click the button on the right side of the crate's lapel labeled: 'This week's mix.'" They smiled and I knew I was getting somewhere. I tipped my hat and adjusted my lapels, "any questions you can always call - 1-877-FRUIT-ME. The staff loves to sing."

Enjoy and be fruitful!


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Old 08-22-2009, 05:57 PM   #50
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Maybe we should be keeping the ducks away from the pigs

Mallard ducks – did you know?

Flu viruses can live in ducks up to four weeks during which time they can easily be transmitted to livestock and humans. The ducks will never become ill because they have a gene that produces virus-killing antibodies.

Ducks are believed to have been responsible for the Spanish Flu in 1918 that killed 25 million people, and for the Hong Kong Flu in 1968 that killed over a million people.

Birds and their droppings can spread over 60 different diseases – many
can be deadly.

The Mallard duck population has increased over 37% since 1967, and
25% since 1996.

The 1990 duck population was estimated at 25.1 million, the current
1997 population is estimated to be well over 42.6 million.
http://www.bugpage.com/birdfacts.php


Also see:
http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/71/10/2471.pdf
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