Garlic (and other alums) put out a flower head. When it is very young and before it produces the actual flower head its called a scape. These can be picked while tender and cooked like asparagus, pickled or used in sauces like pesto. Its a very short season for them so enjoy them when the opportunity arises!
Once the scape begins to mature it produces a round globe-like flower head. The unopened buds can be used as a caper substitute if pickled in vinegar, salt and seasonings or added to salads, potatoes etc. They are wonderful.
After the bloom many of these produce small bulblets. Some varieties of these are large enough to be used like shallots. Years ago when I was in college a friends parents had a garlic bed with a variety that produced huge bulblets. I've been looking for this variety ever since (gardeners regret for not getting a start LOL). Some Walking/Egyptian onions have good sized heads but nothing like those garlic...alas.